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專家用范文講解托福作文如何來審題

  • 簡介:議論文亦稱論說文,目的在于論說一種觀點。論說的過程包含對別的觀點的駁斥。托福中議論文作文題所給的條件一般包括一個問題,兩種觀點或幾種選擇,要求考生加以評論,提出自己的看法,或選擇,并說明理由。    
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議論文亦稱論說文,目的在于論說一種觀點。論說的過程包含對別的觀點的駁斥。托福中議論文作文題所給的條件一般包括一個問題,兩種觀點或幾種選擇,要求考生加以評論,提出自己的看法,或選擇,并說明理由。

  托福議論文的作文題特征決定了作文寫法的基本框架,準備時應主要練習兩種寫法,第一種是演繹法,及把自己的觀點在文章的前部直截了當地擺出,然后再把論據一條一條地敘述,支持前面的觀點。論據可以合寫成一段,也可以按一個論據一個自然段的方式排列。論據寫完后,文章便可以結束,也可以再加一段,重提前面的觀點,并作進一步的闡說。第二種是歸納法,采用與演繹法相反的手段,顯逐條分析,列出論據,最后自然地得出結論,表明自己的觀點。無論何種方法,論據應力求全面客觀,實事求是,以增強說服力。

   議論文對語言的要求主要體現在三個方面:首先,要用恰當的邏輯詞表示文章的邏輯性。第二,要注意自然段與主題句的運用,即用自然段表示出文章的邏輯性,并在每段中用主題句說明要點,給人一目了然的感覺。第三個重要方面是句型結構,寫作時應注意每句的重心和句與句之間的銜接,使句意一環扣一環避免松散。

  [范文一]
  題目:More than ever before, married couples today are choosing not to have children. These couples say that children bring more misery than joy. Do you believe that the advantages of having children overweigh the disadvantages? Or do you think that married couple have a better life without children? In a brief essay, discuss both positions and explain which position you support.

  [試題分析]
  一條件: 現在的情況/與過去相比/已婚夫婦不愿要孩子/理由是孩子帶來的煩惱多于快樂
  二要求: 回答兩個問題:有小孩的利是否大于弊? 不生小孩的夫婦生活是否更好一些?
  三寫作分析: 本題是熟題,但有的考生可能因為本人經歷而尚未考慮過此事,需要臨時構思.本片用演繹法和歸納法都可以。下筆前應先確定文章的主題是利弊分析,應當言之有理條理清楚,自己的觀點由自己決定,對文章好壞影響不大。

  One of the greatest changes in family life no wadays is that many couples decide not to have any children because they think that children bring more misery than joy. To my mind, these couples are not only short-sighted but also selfish.

  It is an undeniable fact that a married couple without children have more opportunities to get jobs, enjoy the freedom from the troubles and worries caused by children, and can spend all the money they earn for their own pleasure and comforts, but they should not forget that there are also three outweighing advantages in having children. Firstly, children can bring a great deal of joy to a couple, especially after the honey moon of the first happy years. Secondly, children may bring some cohesive force to a family. This is because family conflicts are unavoidable and can snowball, leading to broken marriages. With a child or children in a family, the two sides of the conflicts can easily reach a compromise or mutual understanding unless there is something really serious. Thirdly, a couple without children will be helpless when they are too old to help themselves. They can ask others for help, but "Blood is thicker than water"; they can never enjoy the reliable and timely help from their off springs. In short, from a long point of view, the advantages of having children overweigh those of having no children.

  From a social point of view, those who choose to be childless are selfish and irresponsible. Human society needs to carry on and its members should give birth to babies, bring them up, and educate them according to the requirements of society. If everybody escapes from these responsibilities out of selfish considerations, there will be no human beings on the planet of earth. This view of mine, however, does not mean that we should have as many children as possible. If we are responsible members of the human society, we should also limit the number of our children according to the social requirements. ONT>
  文章采用演繹法,在第一段就表達了作者觀點,形成主題句。主題句起統領下文的作用,決定了下文的內容與寫法。因此,第二段在肯定優點的同時指出了生小孩的三個優點,并逐一說明。第三段圍繞第一段的主題句,從社會角度說明不要孩子是自私和部負責任的表現。文章最后說明作者贊同要小孩,但主張對孩子的數量進行控制。 這樣寫,觀點容易被接受。

  [范文二]
  題目:Should a person with an incurable illness spend his last days in a hospital where he or she can receive the best possible medical care? Or should this person be permitted to die at home? In a brief essay, respond to the above questions. Be sure to explain which position you support.

  [試題分析]
  一條件:患不治之癥的患者/在人世間的最后一段時間/到醫院接受最好的醫療與護理/允許在家謝世。
  二 要求:就上述條件與兩種處理方法發表意見,說明你支持何種做法。
  三 寫作分析:本題是世界范圍內經常爭論的話題,但至今無定論.寫作時可支持任何觀點,寫法用演繹法或歸納法。

   Should a person with an incurable illness spend his last days in a hospital where he or she can receive the best possible medical care? Or should this person be permitted to die at home? These two questions are difficult to answer and may cause some heated arguments. My view is that we have to consider two different situations and make our decisions accordingly.

  The first possible situation is that the patient is still conscious and able to express himself. In this case, we should talk to him and find out his own opinion. If he wishes to stay in a hospital, we should send him there and try to get the best medical care for him no matter how much it will cost. If he wants to stay at home, we should show respect for his opinion and do our best at home for him no matter how troublesome it may be. The rationale of this view is that the best we can do for a dying person is to satisfy his last wishes except when he wants anthanasia in a country in which it is still illegal. The other possible situation is that the patient is no longer able to express himself. In this case, it is better to let him stay at home and spend his last days with his relatives. This view is based on the following considerations. This first is that since the patient is going to die anyway, it is better for him to die at home instead of a place where his relatives are not allowed to stay with him all the time. The second is that it would be a waste of money, time, and energy to hospitalize the patient. The third is that what a hospital can do for a dying person can only bring more suffering to him. For instance, operations or intravenous drips are useless and painful and fist aids applied to him can only make him live longer to suffer more. The best thing a hospital can do is to reduce his pains in his last days, but this can also be done at home.

  In short, my view is that when the questions are considered objectively, the answer is clear: it is better for him, for his relatives, and for society if the patient stays and dies at home. However, as human beings, we cannot discuss a patient without emotional considerations. To fully understand this position, we can just imagine how we would feel if one of our realties were suffering from an incurable illness.

  [范文寫作分析]
   對于這個涉及到復雜而又微妙的感情之事,作者避免了簡單的表態方式。文章采用演繹法,在第一段擺明自己的觀點,然后詳細說明,最后再進一步說明,處理感情方面的考慮。
  第一段 敘述條件,擺明觀點
  第二段 病人清醒情況下的做法
  第三段 病人無法表達意愿時的做法
  第四段 強調自己觀點的合理性
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